The Bengali alphabet is culled from the Brahmi alphabet and is closely related to the Devanagari alphabet, from which it started to diverge in the 11th Century AD. The current printed form of Bengali alphabet first appeared in 1778 when Charles Wilkins developed printing in Bengali and a few archaic letters were modernised during the 19th century, but the overall the script and the alphabet have remained unchanged.
Bengali has two basic literary styles: the first is Sadhubhasa (elegant language) and the second is Chaltibhasa (current language). The former is the traditional literary style based on Middle Bengali of the sixteenth century, while the later is a 20th century creation and is based on the speech of educated people in Calcutta.
The differences between the two styles are not huge and involve mainly forms of pronouns, verb conjugations, and idioms and slangs from the English language. Experts or linguistics prefer to call this alphabet the Eastern Nagari script or Eastern Neo-Brahmic script
The Bengali alphabet is a syllabic alphabet in which consonants all have an inherent vowel and has two different pronunciations, the choice of which is not always easy to determine as is sometimes not pronounced at all. Vowels are written as independent letters, or by using a variety of diacritical accentual marks that are written above, below, before or after the consonant they belong to. When consonants occur together in clusters, special conjunct letters are used to join them together. The letters for the consonants other than the final one in the group are truncated. The inherent vowel only applies to the final consonant.
Bengali: An eastern Indo-Aryan language with around 211 million speakers in Bangladesh, the Indian state of West Bengal and also in Malawi, Nepal, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Australia, the UAE, UK and USA.
Assamese: An eastern Indo-Aryan language spoken by about 15 million people in the Indian states of Assam, Meghalaya and Arunachal Pradesh, and also spoken in Bangladesh and Bhutan.
Manipuri: One of the official languages of the Indian state of Manipur in north-east India and has approximately 1.1 million speakers. It is a member of the Sino-Tibetan language family, and also has its own unique alphabet
Garo: a Tibeto-Burman language spoken by about 800,000 people in the Indian states of Meghalaya and Assam, and in Bangladesh.
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Mundari: a Munda language with about two million speakers in eastern India, residing in the Indian state of Bihar, Bangladesh and Nepali. It’s written script is derived from with the Devanagari, Bengali, Oriya and Latin alphabets.